The majority of chemicals used for fracking have never been assessed for their long-term impacts on the environment and human health by the national chemical regulator, NICNAS. The NICNAS report on the chemicals used in fracking and their potential risks is due to be finalised in 2015.
Some of the chemicals used in fracking operations are known carcinogens; they include neurotoxins, irritants/sensitisers, reproductive toxins and endocrine disruptors. The contamination risks extend to the production of crops and animals (National Toxics Network, 2011).
According to Dr Theo Colborn, the founder of TEDx, The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (Ideas that matter):
Extracting, processing, and burning fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal) introduces huge volumes of harmful chemicals into our environment. These chemicals, and the tens of thousands of chemical products synthesized from them, are now present in every environment on earth, including the womb. Extremely low concentrations of many chemicals can damage the endocrine system of our bodies by interfering with the intricate, delicate network of natural chemical interactions critical to healthy development and normal function. Read More
In addition to the list below, the Health and Environment Database lists hundreds of chemicals and their health effects on humans and the environment.
2-butoxyethanol is easily absorbed by the human body and is particularly toxic to red blood cells. Exposure can occur through inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption, and eye or skin contact, causing damage to the spleen, liver and bone marrow and carries the risk of haemolysis. Chronic haemolysis places continuous strain on vital organs, particularly the liver; kidneys; and heart, which increases the risk of serious and life-threatening complications such as deep vein thrombosis, liver and/or kidney failure, heart attack and stroke.
1107-21-1 Ethylene glycol
Exposure to ethylene glycol can cause nausea and vomiting, eye, skin, respiratory and digestive tract irritation, kidney damage, cardiac disturbance and can affect the central nervous system. This substance has caused adverse reproductive and foetal effects in animals. Inhalation may cause respiratory tract irritation. Heated or misted substance may cause headache, irregular eye movements, and possible coma. If ingested, toxicity follows 3-stage progression:
- Central nervous system effects including paralysis of eye muscles, convulsions, and coma. Metabolic acidosis and cerebral swelling may also occur
- Affects cardiopulmonary system with symptoms of hypertension, rapid heartbeat, and possible cardiac failure
- Severe kidney abnormalities, including possible renal failure.
Nitrogen displaces oxygen, making the atmosphere hazardous to humans. Breathing an oxygen deficient atmosphere can have serious and immediate effects, including unconsciousness after only one or two breaths. The exposed person has no warning and cannot sense oxygen levels are too low.
Glycerine can cause eye and skin irritation. Inhalation of glycerine mist can cause respiratory and/or digestive tract irritation.
5-chloro-2-methyl-2h-isothiazolol-3-one & 2-methyl-2h-isothiazol-3-one
Eye contact with concentrated biocides can cause severe irritation or chemical burns. Corneal injury can result in permanent vision impairment, including blindness. Prolonged skin contact with concentrated biocides can lead to skin sensitisation and may cause chemical burns (skin corrosion). Biocides may have moderate toxicity if swallowed, and inhalation can cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract and lungs.
Sodium hypochlorite can cause irreversible eye injury. Contact with liquid is corrosive to the eyes and causes severe burns to skin. If ingested, it can cause methemoglobinemia, which is characterised by dizziness, drowsiness, headache and shortness breath, cyanosis (characterised by bluish discoloration of skin due to deficient oxygenation of the blood), rapid heart rate, convulsions, and death. Inhalation can cause pulmonary oedema and severe respiratory disturbance, severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma; and severe digestive tract burns with abdominal pain, vomiting, and possible death.
Also known as: 55566-30-8, Retardol S, Pyroset TKO, Bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium] sulfate solution, THPS, CCRIS 316. When heated to decomposition phosphonium sulfate emits very toxic fumes of phosphorous oxides & sulphur oxides.
C.I. pigment red 5
If used as expected, no human health hazard or toxicity has been identified with this chemical. Exposure may cause allergic skin reaction. It is not readily or inherently biodegradable.
584-08-7 Potassium carbonate
Primary routes of exposure are ingestion and inhalation. Potassium carbonate is irritating to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged skin contact can cause severe irritation. Contact with eyes causes conjunctival oedema and corneal destruction. Inhalation can cause breathing difficulties and irritate the mucous membranes and respiratory tract. Potassium carbonate is harmful if swallowed; large doses can be corrosive and cause abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea and collapse.
127-09-3 Sodium acetate
Can cause eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation.
1310-73-2 Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
Target organs are eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive; it causes eye and skin burns and can cause severe digestive and respiratory tract irritation with possible burns.
144-55-8 Sodium bicarbonate
Can cause skin, respiratory and digestive tract irritation. Causes eye irritation, redness and pain. Repeated or prolonged exposure can cause drying and cracking of the skin.
497-19-8 Sodium carbonate (soda ash)
Contact with eyes can cause severe irritation, possible eye burns and can result in corneal injury. Contact with skin causes irritation and possible burns, especially if the skin is wet or moist. Can cause irritation of the digestive tract if ingested. Harmful if inhaled. Can cause irritation of the respiratory tract with burning pain in the nose and throat, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and pulmonary oedema. Prolonged or repeated inhalation can cause nosebleeds, nasal congestion, erosion of the teeth, perforation of the nasal septum, chest pain and bronchitis.
7647-01-0 Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid)
Target organs are teeth and the circulatory system. Corrosive. Contact with liquid is corrosive to the eyes, causes severe burns, may cause painful sensitisation to light and can cause irreversible eye injury. Vapour or mist can cause irritation and severe burns. May be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts. May cause skin sensitisation - an allergic reaction which becomes evident upon re-exposure. Contact with liquid is corrosive and causes severe burns and ulceration. Ingestion may cause circulatory system failure, corrosion and permanent tissue destruction of the oesophagus and digestive tract. Causes severe digestive tract burns with abdominal pain, vomiting, and possible death. Inhalation may cause severe irritation of the respiratory tract with sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath and delayed lung oedema. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Exposure to the mist and vapour can erode exposed teeth. Causes corrosive action on the mucous membranes. Possible sensitiser.Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis; prolonged exposure may cause conjunctivitis, photosensitisation and possible blindness. May cause foetal effects. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects.
463-79-6 Carbonic acid
Affects muscles, including the heart, and the central nervous system. May cause irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May be fatal if swallowed. Harmful if inhaled; can result in convulsions and death; can cause excessive salivation, severe abdominal pain, vomiting, violent diarrhoea, muscle twitching progressing to muscle paralysis, gastroenteritis and increased blood pressure.
77-92-9 Citric acid
Causes skin irritation and skin contact may cause skin sensitisation. Causes severe eye irritation. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Can cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Can cause digestive tract irritation. Moisture sensitive.
64-19-7 Acetic acid
Target organs are teeth, eyes, skin and mucous membranes. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. May be absorbed through the lungs. Corrosive. Liquid and vapour is flammable. Causes severe digestive and respiratory tract burns. Causes severe eye and skin burns. Contact with liquid or vapour causes severe burns and possible irreversible eye damage. Contact with the skin causes skin burns and may cause blackening and hyperkeratosis of the skin of the hands. Can cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract if ingested. Ingestion also causes severe pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and shock, and may cause polyuria, oliguria and anuria. Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Effects of inhalation may be delayed. Inhalation causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Exposure can lead to bronchitis, pharyngitis and dental erosion. Chronic exposure to acetic acid can cause dental enamel erosion, bronchitis, eye irritation, darkening of the skin and chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract. Acetic acid can cause occupational asthma. Skin sensitisation to acetic acid is rare, but has occurred.
533-96-0 Carbonic acid, sodium salt
Primary routes of Exposure: Inhalation, Ingestion, Eye, Skin absorption. Can cause respiratory tract irritation if inhaled. Moderately irritating to eyes and can cause skin irritation. Symptoms of overexposure may be headache, dizziness, tiredness, nausea and vomiting.
4-02-8 Tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate
Slightly hazardous ingested or inhaled. Slightly hazardous if skin or eye contact occurs. Can be toxic to upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes and repeated or prolonged exposure can produce target organs damage.
67-48-1 Choline chloride
Irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory system.
7447-40-7 Potassium chloride
Target organs: eyes. Hygroscopic. Causes eye irritation and may cause skin irritation and respiratory tract irritation. Can cause chemical conjunctivitis. If ingested, can cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Can cause gastric disturbances and electrolytic imbalance. If inhaled, can cause respiratory tract irritation. Can produce delayed pulmonary oedema. Chronic effects may be delayed. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects.
26062-79-3 Polydimethyldiallylammonium Chloride
May be slightly irritating to skin and eyes on prolonged exposure. No evidence of corrosiveness. ACUTE TOXICITY: LD50 ORAL (rat)= > 5g/kg
593-81-7 Trimethylammonium chloride
Irritating to respiratory system and skin. Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed; animal experiments indicate ingestion of less than 150 gram may be fatal or may seriously damage health. Can produce chemical burns within the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. Concentrated solutions can cause corrosive damage to mucous membranes and the oesophagus. Nausea and vomiting (sometimes bloody) can follow ingestion. Direct contact with the eyes can cause chemical burns to the eye and severe eye damage. Vapours or mists may be extremely irritating. Contact with skin can cause chemical burns and inflammation. Entry into the blood-stream through cuts, abrasions or lesions may result in systemic injury. Can cause respiratory irritation if inhaled and the body's response to irritation can cause further lung damage; prolonged exposure can cause changes in lung function i.e. pneumoconiosis. Long-term exposure can result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems. Limited evidence suggests that repeated or long-term occupational exposure may produce cumulative health effects involving organs or biochemical systems. Repeated or prolonged exposure may result in the erosion of teeth, swelling and or ulceration of mouth lining. Irritation of airways to lung, with cough, and inflammation of lung tissue often occurs. Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
Non-hazardous. Limited evidence suggests Gelatine is a possible respiratory and skin sensitiser. Cumulative effects may result following exposure. Avoid contact with skin. Do not breathe dust.
00-43-52-4 Calcium chloride
Causes serious eye irritation. To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.
91053-39-3 Diatomaceous earth
Chronic Health Effects: This product contains crystalline silica (CS), which is classified as a hazard by inhalation. Long term inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dusts in excess of the TLV (threshold limit value), over a prolonged period may cause a non-cancerous lung disease (silicosis). Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica has been classified as carcinogenic (Group1) by IARC, a unit of the World Health Organization. Respirable crystalline silica is listed by the NTP as a known human carcinogen. If ingested, this product is not considered harmful in small amounts but mouth, throat and stomach irritation may occur. May cause temporary irritation or inflammation and cause skin dryness with continued exposure.
14807-96-6 Magnesium silicate hydrate
Long-term excessive exposures may cause Talcosis, a pulmonary fibrosis, which may lead to severe and permanent damage to the lungs. Long-term overexposure to crystalline silica causes silicosis, a form of pulmonary fibrosis. Continued overexposure can lead to cardiopulmonary impairment. IARC found sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of inhaled crystalline silica in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources. Irritating to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Dust or powder may irritate the eyes and skin. Ingestion may cause temporary irritation of the throat, stomach, and gastrointestinal tract.
7631-86-9 Non-crystalline silica
Can cause respiratory tract irritation if inhaled. Chronic inhalation of dust may lead to silicosis, a form of pulmonary fibrosis. Chronic Inhalation can cause pneumoconiosis. Hygroscopic. Dust can cause eye irritation.
10043-35-3 Boric acid
Target organs are blood, kidneys, heart, central nervous system, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal system, eyes, reproductive system and skin. Causes eye and skin irritation; may be harmful if absorbed through the skin. Can be harmful if inhaled; can cause respiratory tract irritation. Can be harmful if swallowed. Can cause irritation of the digestive tract, including nausea and vomiting. Central nervous system effects (excitement or depression, lethargy, headache, coma, seizures), dehydration, arrhythmias, shock and metabolic acidosis have been reported in extreme adult and pediatric cases. Prolonged or repeated skin contact can cause dermatitis. Repeated exposure can cause central nervous system damage, liver and kidney damage and damage to the spleen. Chronic exposure may cause blood effects. Adverse reproductive effects have been reported in animals. Laboratory experiments have resulted in mutagenic effects. May impair fertility.
Target organs are kidneys, liver and skin. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage. Can be toxic to kidneys, liver and skin. Hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: 3 (Not classifiable for human.) by IARC. Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells.
1303-96-4 Sodium tetraborate
Can cause eye, skin, respiratory and digestive tract irritation. May cause adverse reproductive effects based upon animal studies. Human fatalities have been reported from acute poisoning.
25038-72-6 Vinylidene chloride/methylacrylate
SARAN™ resins present no significant health. They are essentially non-irritating to the eyes and skin, but can cause temporary eye and skin irritation under extreme conditions. SARAN™ resins are non-volatile solids; they are not soluble in water and are expected to be inert and degrade very slowly in the environment. No appreciable biodegradation is expected, but surface photodegradation with exposure to sunlight and degradation due to mechanical action would be expected. SARAN™ resins are unlikely to accumulate in the food chain, and are practically nontoxic to aquatic organisms.
26038-87-9 MEA borate
Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory irritation and may be harmful if swallowed. Decomposition in fire may produce toxic gases. Environmental Precautionary Measures: Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas.
7647-14-5 Sodium chloride
Can cause eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation. Ingestion of large amounts can cause gastrointestinal irritation, nausea and vomiting, rigidity or convulsions. Continued exposure can produce coma, dehydration, and internal organ congestion.
7722-84-1 Hydrogen peroxide
Irritating to the eyes, causing redness and stinging. Occasional skin hypersensitivity reactions have occurred. Inhalation is not hazardous under normal conditions of use, although high concentrations of vapours may cause discomfort. Can cause localised burning if swallowed.
7727-54-0 Diammonium peroxidisulphate
Target organs are the respiratory system, eyes and skin. Causes eye, skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract irritation. Harmful if swallowed. Can cause sensitisation by inhalation and by skin contact. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, oedema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema. Can cause respiratory sensitisation. Repeated or prolonged exposure can cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Strong oxidiser. Contact with other material may cause a fire.
7772-98-7 Sodium thiosulfate
Can cause eye, skin, respiratory and digestive tract irritation. Ingestion can cause sore throat, coughing, nausea and abdominal pain. Inhalation can cause coughing, respiratory irritation, dyspnoea and pulmonary oedema. Exposure can result in mucous membrane irritation, dermatitis and conjunctivitis.
7775-27-1 Sodium persulfate
Airborne persulfate dust can irritate the eyes, nose, lungs, throat and skin upon contact. Exposure to high levels of persulfate dust can cause difficulty in breathing in sensitive persons. Spilled material should be disposed of as a hazardous waste.
9000-30-0 Guar gum
Not classified as hazardous according to NOHSC criteria.
9025-56-3 Hemicellulase enzyme
May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled.
9012-54-8 Hemicellulase enzyme carbohydrates
Can cause eye and respiratory irritation. Can cause allergic respiratory reaction. Airborne dust may be explosive. Prevent from entering sewers, waterways, or low areas. Organic dust in the presence of an ignition source can be explosive in high concentrations.
7757-82-6 Sodium sulphate
Moisture sensitive. Low hazard material for usual industrial handling. Can cause eye, skin, respiratory and digestive tract irritation. Can cause foetal effects based upon animal studies (Mutagenicity: Tumorigenic: Subcutaneous, mouse: TDLo = 806 mg/kg/26wks Skin and appendage tumors). Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways.
7757-83-7 Sodium sulphite
Target organ is the central nervous system. Air sensitive. Moisture sensitive. Causes eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation; may cause digestive tract irritation and chemical conjunctivitis. Can be harmful if swallowed. Can cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Inhalation causes respiratory tract irritation. Can produce delayed pulmonary oedema. Chronic effects may be delayed.
10377-60-3 Magnesium nitrate
Target organs are the blood and kidneys. Can cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation. If ingested, can cause methemoglobinemia, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin due to deficient oxygenation of the blood), convulsions, and death. May cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, possibly with blood. Excessive amounts may cause kidney damage, central nervous system depression, respiratory paralysis and cardiac arrest. Inhalation can cause similar effects to those described for ingestion respiratory tract irritation. May cause methemoglobinemia, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin due to deficient oxygenation of the blood), convulsions, tachycardia, dyspnea (laboured breathing), and death. Chronic exposure can cause methemoglobinemia, which is characterized by chocolate-brown coloured blood, headache, weakness, dizziness shortness of breath, cyanosis (bluish skin due to deficient oxygenation of blood), rapid heart rate, unconsciousness and possible death. Repeated exposure can cause kidney damage and digestive tract abnormalities. Effects may be delayed. Strong oxidizer. Contact with other material may cause a fire.
7786-30-3 Magnesium chloride
Contact can cause minor skin irritation and dust may cause mechanical irritation of the eyes. Inhalation of dust may cause mild irritation to the mucous membranes. If ingested, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea may be the only symptoms as magnesium salts are absorbed slowly. However, if elimination is blocked by bowel blockage or other reasons, depression of the central nervous system, lack of reflexes and hypocalcemia (deficiency of calcium in the blood) may occur.
112926-00-8 Silica gel
Target organs are the lungs. Causes respiratory tract irritation and can cause skin, eye and digestive tract irritation. Prolonged exposure to respirable crystalline quartz may cause delayed lung injury/fibrosis (silicosis).
Can be fatal if swallowed and enters the airways. Causes serious eye irritation and skin irritation. Glycol Ethers: Some glycol ethers cause adverse effects in animals that include the reproductive system, offspring, blood, kidney and liver. Combustible liquid and vapour. Avoid release to the environment.
Target organs are kidneys, heart, central nervous system and liver. May cause cyanosis of the extremities and liver, kidney and heart damage. Causes severe eye irritation and may cause painful sensitisation to light, chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Causes moderate skin irritation. Ingestion can cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. May cause systemic toxicity with acidosis. May cause central nervous system depression, characterised by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterised by nausea, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. Causes respiratory tract irritation and can cause narcotic effects in high concentration. Vapours may cause dizziness or suffocation.
Teratogenicity: Oral, Human - woman: TDLo = 41 gm/kg (female 41 week(s) after conception) Effects on Newborn - Apgar score (human only) and Effects on Newborn - other neonatal measures or effects and Effects on Newborn – drug dependence.
Reproductive Effects: Intrauterine, Human - woman: TDLo = 200 mg/kg (female 5 day(s) pre-mating) Fertility – female fertility index (e.g. # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated).
Neurotoxicity: No information available.
Mutagenicity: DNA Inhibition: Human, Lymphocyte = 220 mmol/L.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Lymphocyte = 1160 gm/L.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Fibroblast = 12000 ppm.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Leukocyte = 1 pph/72H gm/L.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Fibroblast = 12000 ppm.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Leukocyte = 1 pph/72H (Continuous).; Sister Chromatid Exchange: Human, Lymphocyte = 500 ppm/72H (Continuous).
Ecotoxicity: Fish: Rainbow trout: LC50 = 12900-15300 mg/L; 96 Hr; Flow-through @ 24-24.3°C Rainbow trout: LC50 =11200 mg/L; 24 Hr; Fingerling (Unspecified) ria: Phytobacterium phosphoreum: EC50 = 34900 mg/L; 5-30 min;
When spilled on land ethanol is apt to volatilise, biodegrade, and leach into the ground water, but no data on the rates of these processes could be found. Its fate in ground water is unknown. When released into water it will volatilise and probably biodegrade. It would not be expected to adsorb to sediment or bioconcentrate in fish.
Environmental: Flammable liquid and vapour (Flash Point: 16.6 deg C).
When released to the atmosphere it will photodegrade in hours (polluted urban atmosphere) to an estimated range of 4 to 6 days in less polluted areas. Rainout should be significant.
Ethanol is Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen CAS# 7732-18-5: Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, NIOSH, NTP, or OSHA. Animal studies have reported the development of tumours. Ethanol has caused adverse reproductive and foetal effects in humans and has been shown to produce foeto-toxicity in the embryo or foetus of laboratory animals. Prenatal exposure is associated with a distinct pattern of congenital malformations that have collectively been termed "foetal alcohol syndrome".
Target organs are the central nervous system, respiratory system, eyes and skin. Hygroscopic. Produces irritation, characterized by a burning sensation, redness, tearing, inflammation, and possible corneal injury. May cause skin irritation with pain and stinging, especially if the skin is abraded. Prolonged or repeated contact causes defatting of the skin with irritation, dryness, and cracking. Isopropanol has a low potential to cause allergic skin reactions; however, rare cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported. Can be absorbed through unbroken skin although dermal absorption has been considered toxicologically insignificant. The cases of deep coma associated with skin contact are thought to be a consequence of gross isopropanol vapor inhalation in rooms with inadequate ventilation. Ingestion causes gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea and may cause kidney damage. Ingestion may cause central nervous system depression, characterised by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Aspiration of material into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal. The probable oral lethal dose in humans is 240 ml (2696 mg/kg), but ingestion of only 20 ml (224 mg/kg) has caused poisoning. Causes respiratory tract irritation and is an aspiration hazard if swallowed. Can enter lungs and cause damage. Breathing vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. Inhalation of high concentrations can cause narcotic effects and central nervous system effects characterised by nausea, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma.
Epidemiology: Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects have been reported for isopropanol. Early epidemiological studies suggest an association between the strong acid manufacture of isopropyl alcohol and para-nasal sinus cancer in workers.
Teratogenicity: No evidence of teratogenic effects.
Reproductive Effects: See actual entry in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) for complete information.
Neurotoxicity: No information available.
Mutagenicity: See actual entry in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) for complete information.
This material has been reported to be susceptible to autoxidation and therefore should be classified as peroxidizable. Flammable liquid and vapour (Flash Point: 12 deg C). May form explosive peroxides.