Can be fatal if swallowed and enters the airways. Causes serious eye irritation and skin irritation. Glycol Ethers: Some glycol ethers cause adverse effects in animals that include the reproductive system, offspring, blood, kidney and liver. Combustible liquid and vapour. Avoid release to the environment.
Target organs are kidneys, heart, central nervous system and liver. May cause cyanosis of the extremities and liver, kidney and heart damage. Causes severe eye irritation and may cause painful sensitisation to light, chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Causes moderate skin irritation. Ingestion can cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. May cause systemic toxicity with acidosis. May cause central nervous system depression, characterised by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system effects characterised by nausea, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma. Causes respiratory tract irritation and can cause narcotic effects in high concentration. Vapours may cause dizziness or suffocation.
Teratogenicity: Oral, Human - woman: TDLo = 41 gm/kg (female 41 week(s) after conception) Effects on Newborn - Apgar score (human only) and Effects on Newborn - other neonatal measures or effects and Effects on Newborn – drug dependence.
Reproductive Effects: Intrauterine, Human - woman: TDLo = 200 mg/kg (female 5 day(s) pre-mating) Fertility – female fertility index (e.g. # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated).
Neurotoxicity: No information available.
Mutagenicity: DNA Inhibition: Human, Lymphocyte = 220 mmol/L.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Lymphocyte = 1160 gm/L.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Fibroblast = 12000 ppm.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Leukocyte = 1 pph/72H gm/L.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Fibroblast = 12000 ppm.; Cytogenetic Analysis: Human, Leukocyte = 1 pph/72H (Continuous).; Sister Chromatid Exchange: Human, Lymphocyte = 500 ppm/72H (Continuous).
Ecotoxicity: Fish: Rainbow trout: LC50 = 12900-15300 mg/L; 96 Hr; Flow-through @ 24-24.3°C Rainbow trout: LC50 =11200 mg/L; 24 Hr; Fingerling (Unspecified) ria: Phytobacterium phosphoreum: EC50 = 34900 mg/L; 5-30 min;
When spilled on land ethanol is apt to volatilise, biodegrade, and leach into the ground water, but no data on the rates of these processes could be found. Its fate in ground water is unknown. When released into water it will volatilise and probably biodegrade. It would not be expected to adsorb to sediment or bioconcentrate in fish.
Environmental: Flammable liquid and vapour (Flash Point: 16.6 deg C).
When released to the atmosphere it will photodegrade in hours (polluted urban atmosphere) to an estimated range of 4 to 6 days in less polluted areas. Rainout should be significant.
Ethanol is Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen CAS# 7732-18-5: Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, NIOSH, NTP, or OSHA. Animal studies have reported the development of tumours. Ethanol has caused adverse reproductive and foetal effects in humans and has been shown to produce foeto-toxicity in the embryo or foetus of laboratory animals. Prenatal exposure is associated with a distinct pattern of congenital malformations that have collectively been termed "foetal alcohol syndrome".
Target organs are the central nervous system, respiratory system, eyes and skin. Hygroscopic. Produces irritation, characterized by a burning sensation, redness, tearing, inflammation, and possible corneal injury. May cause skin irritation with pain and stinging, especially if the skin is abraded. Prolonged or repeated contact causes defatting of the skin with irritation, dryness, and cracking. Isopropanol has a low potential to cause allergic skin reactions; however, rare cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported. Can be absorbed through unbroken skin although dermal absorption has been considered toxicologically insignificant. The cases of deep coma associated with skin contact are thought to be a consequence of gross isopropanol vapor inhalation in rooms with inadequate ventilation. Ingestion causes gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea and may cause kidney damage. Ingestion may cause central nervous system depression, characterised by excitement, followed by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. Aspiration of material into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal. The probable oral lethal dose in humans is 240 ml (2696 mg/kg), but ingestion of only 20 ml (224 mg/kg) has caused poisoning. Causes respiratory tract irritation and is an aspiration hazard if swallowed. Can enter lungs and cause damage. Breathing vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. Inhalation of high concentrations can cause narcotic effects and central nervous system effects characterised by nausea, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness and coma.
Epidemiology: Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects have been reported for isopropanol. Early epidemiological studies suggest an association between the strong acid manufacture of isopropyl alcohol and para-nasal sinus cancer in workers.
Teratogenicity: No evidence of teratogenic effects.
Reproductive Effects: See actual entry in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) for complete information.
Neurotoxicity: No information available.
Mutagenicity: See actual entry in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) for complete information.
This material has been reported to be susceptible to autoxidation and therefore should be classified as peroxidizable. Flammable liquid and vapour (Flash Point: 12 deg C). May form explosive peroxides.